ER4STEM Glossary

Word Definition
Activity Template An abstraction of lesson plans and educational activities including the main aspects that need to be addressed when designing a robotics activity, it is based on the theory of constructionism and on the special characteristics of robotics as educational technology. The activity plan template can be used to generate different examples of activities addressing formal and non-formal settings and different types of kits used.
Artifact Physical or virtual object, usually the result of something.
Application A type of software which is normally installed on a mobile device, such as smart phone or tablet.
Application Software Software which is designed to do one specific task
Attitudes A set way of thinking or feeling about something.
Collaborative Learning Learning based on collaboration between students and emphasizes also the skill on how to to collaborate
Companion They robot share the educational experience and it gives emotional support through the learning process.
Competition Based Learning A constructivist approach to learning in which competition is used as stimulus for the maximization of the intended learning outcomes specified in a given course or curriculum, while team members participate in a project under controlled environment.
Compulsory Learning
Constructionism Learning theory based on constructivism: The main idea is that students learn more efficiently when they engage in constructing something meaningful for them be it a sand castle or a robot
Constructivism Learning theory addressing learning as an active process where learning takes place through interaction of the learner with the environment
Consultant The teacher or robot provides advices in particular points during the activity
Curriculum A curriculum may also refer to a defined and prescribed course of studies, which students must fulfill in order to pass a certain level of education. For example, an elementary school might discuss how its curriculum, or its entire sum of lessons and teachings, is designed to improve national testing scores or help students learn the basics. An individual teacher might also refer to his or her curriculum, meaning all the subjects that will be taught during a school year." Many different definitions. There is a disctinction between explicit curriculum, implicit curriculum, hidden curriculum and excluded curriculum
Desktop Application This is an application/software that is installed on your computer to execute some sort of tasks.
Digital Artefact A digital object constructed by users of a piece of software (a video can be such an artefact, a digital story etc)
Discovery Learning An inquiry-based and constructivist approach to learning. Learner draws on their existing knowledge and applies it to a new situation or problem and in the process identify the limits of their existing knowledge and discover new knowledge by manipulating objects and sharing ideas
Educational Activity Plan A description of the main aspects a teacher or an instructor needs to consider in order to plan his/her teaching (may include objectives, resources, prerequisites etc)
Educational Activity An educational activity can be part of an educational activity plan and might focus on a specific topic or skill or learning concept (e.g. programming a robot can be one such activity, constructing the robot can be another, discussing and presenting the robot can be a third activity)
Educational Artifact
Educational Robotic Activity An activity that makes use of robotics in an educational setting.
Educational Robotics A collection of activities, instructional programs, physical platforms, educational resources and pedagogical approaches related to the usage of robotics for educational purposes.
Educational Theories
Evaluation A decision or judgement on something based on evidence.
Firmware Firmware is permanent software that is store in the ROM memory. In the case of robotics is the software that controls the robots.
Formal Activity Activity included in formal/mainstream school education
Informal Activity Activity that is not directed linked with school educational program
Instructor Person who lead the workshop, the title is not directly refer to instructionism
Knowledge it is the information, understanding and skills that are gain through education or experience
Learner-centered Design
Learning Model A type of model which are used for learning methods. It is suggested that different models apply for the different type of leaners
Learning Objectives A set of objectives set out in a lesson plan or in an activity plan which aim to be achieved during the implementation of the lesson, the activity and/or a course. Can be long term, short term with different foci (pedagogical, cognitive, technological etc)
Manual a small guideline that gives useful information about performing certain activity
Mentor Someone who supports a learner. They do not provide direct instruction but act as a guide or advisor.
Mobile Application This is a programme that runs on mobile devices such as smartphones or tablets
Operating System An operating system is is a system software that manages the computer software and hardward. Popular operating systems include Windows, Mac and Linux
Peer A person who has equal standing/ knowledge/ skills with another or others, as in rank, class, or age
Problem Solving
Problem solving consists of using generic or ad hoc methods, in an orderly manner, for finding solutions to problems. There are four basic steps in solving a problem:
Defining the problem. Generating alternatives. Evaluating and selecting alternatives. Implementing solutions.
Programming Computer programming or programming is a process that leads to the creation of a program that could be executed by a computer.
Programming Languages A programming language is a formal language created to abstract the machine instructions to the programmer.
Project Based Learning
Research The systematic investigation into and study of materials and sources in order to establish facts and reach new conclusions
Researcher A person who conducts research
Robot There is not a unified definition for what a robot is, but in general it is possible to say that a robot is an autonomous machine that could sense, interact and choice the action to perform.
Robotic Artifact The result from a task being given. The actions being done by the robot
Robotics Robotics is a branch of mechanical engineering, electronic engineering and computer science that studies the creation and improvement of robots.
Robotics for Education see "Educational Robotics"
Role of Robot It is the role that could assume the robot during the educational activity. Traditionally the robot was used as a tool, but with the new technology advances, robots offer a new variety the roles
Role of Teacher The role that teacher plays within the workshop, i.e. facilitator, lecturer, instructor.
Scientific Method A method of procedure that has characterized natural science since the 17th century, consisting in systematic observation, measurement, and experiment, and the formulation, testing, and modification of hypotheses.
Sequential Thinking Sequential thinking is a process in which thoughts are ordered by priority. This kind of process is especially valuable in programming because the microprocessors can just execute one instruction at the time.
Skills An ability and capacity acquired through deliberate, systematic, and sustained effort to smoothly and adaptively carryout complex activities or job functions involving ideas (cognitive skills), things (technical skills), and/or people (interpersonal skills).
Skills for 21st Century
Social robotics Social robotics is a branch of robotics that studies the design, creation and improvement of robots that interact with humans and show social behaviors.
Student-centred Learning
Students' Attitudes Student's views and beliefs.
Teacher Teacher is a person or robot that guides students through their learning process, the person assuming this role could use a variety of pedagogical approaches to help his, her or its pupils to learn a specific topic.
Teacher-Centered Design Students put all of their focus on the teacher. The teacher talks, while the students exclusively listen. During activities, students work alone, and collaboration is discouraged.
Teaching Methods Different models and approaches used by the teacher to teach a subject/topic
Technological Fluency Technological fluency refers to the skills that a person has to use technology. A good explanation could be found in the following link
Tool An item or implement used for a specific purpose. A tool can be a physical object such as mechanical tools including saws and hammers or a technical object such as a web authoring tool or software program. Furthermore, a concept can also be considered a tool.
Tutor A person who gives professional instruction or support in a given topic or field.
Type of Activity General term. It could refer to workshop or conference, curricular or extracurricular.
Web based Application A web application is a client-server application which the client consumes a service exhibited by the server. The main benefit of this kind of application is that does not require the installation of specific programs in the computer, which lead to the ubiquity of the program.
Workbook A student's book containing instruction and exercises relating to a particular subject.
Technology The purposeful application of information in the design, production, and utilization of goods and services, and in the organization of human activities.
Platform A platform is a group of technologies that are used as a base upon which other applications, processes or technologies are developed.
Kit A set of articles or implements used for a specific purpose.
Bloom's Taxonomy "The taxonomy of educational objectives is a framework for classifying statements of what we expect or intend students to learn as a results of instructions"
Bloom's Revised Taxonomi This version modifies the original version. This version modifies previous words and extends some parts
ROM memory The read only memory (ROM) is a memory that once has been written can be only read and it is not erase when the power is cut.
RAM memory The random access memory (RAM) is a memory that could be written and read but the information store on it just last while is power up.
Integrated circuits An integrated circuit is a set of electronic circuits contained in small chip. There are variety of integrated circuits that range from and gates to microcontrollers.
Arduino Arduino is an open-source prototype platform, which lets users to program and control diverse of devices through the use of easy micro-controller programing approach.
Microcontroller A microcontroller is a self-contained system with diverse peripherals and that nowadays are used in diverse of devices such as smartphones, washing machines and robotics.
Microprocessor A microprocessor is an integrated circuit in charge to execute all the arithmetic operations through the use of diverse registers. Moreover it is known as the brain of any device, from computer to smartphones.
Information it is facts provided about something or someone
Data it is things that are known or assumed that are used to make basic reasoning or calculation
Textual Programming It is any programming language that uses text, usually in English, to describe the sequence of commands.
Visual Programming It is a programming language where users create the program through the graphical manipulation of elements.
Science It studies the natural world based on facts that have been learned by experimentation and observation.
Art It is the expression of human’s imagination
Societal Issues They are problems that influences individuals' life.
Mathematics It is a science that studies numbers and their operations.
Life skills They are skills that help people to handle everyday situations.
Engineering It is a science that studies practical applications of pure sciences.
Music It is the study of vocal or instrument sounds combined in a certain way to produce melodies.
Biology It is a branch of knowledge that focus on the study of living organisms and vital processes.
Chemistry It is a branch of knowledge that studies matter, including its composition, properties and structure.
Physics It is a science that studies matter and energy, and their interactions.
Business It is the study of elements of accountancy, finance, marketing, organizational studies and economics.